brainstem nerve


UCSF neuro-oncologist Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, MD, PhD with patient

While various immunotherapies work through different mechanisms, they are all designed to enhance the immune system’s ability to recognize and target cancer cells. Pembrolizumab does so by binding and inhibiting PD-1, a protein that normally protects the body from attacking itself.

Patient Care, Research
Hideho Okada, MD, PhD

Previous immunotherapies like CAR T cells were designed to target glioblastoma cells, but were only effective in killing a portion of the cells – leaving some cancer cells behind, and allowing for tumor recurrence.